Sulawesi Hornbills are spectacular birds endemic to #Sulawesi #Indonesia, #vulnerable from #palmoil #deforestation #hunting and the #pettrade. Help them survive by joining the #Boycott4Wildlife on brands causing #deforestationTweet
The Sulawesi Hornbill also known as the Sulawesi Tarictic Hornbill, Temminck’s hornbill or Sulawesi Dwarf Hornbill, is a relatively small, approximately 45 cm (18 in) long, black hornbill. The male has a yellow face and throat, and yellowish horn bill with black markings. The female has all-black plumage and a darker bill.
An Indonesian endemic, the Sulawesi Hornbill is distributed in the tropical lowland, swamps and primary forests of Sulawesi and nearby islands, from sea level to altitude up to 1,100 metres. There are two subspecies of the Sulawesi Hornbill. The nominate subspecies, P. e. exarhatus, occurs in north Sulawesi, and P. e. sanfordi is found in central, east and south Sulawesi, Buton and Muna Island.
The Sulawesi Hornbill is a social species that lives in groups of up to 20 individuals. This hornbill is believed that only the dominant pair breeds, while the remaining members of the group act as helpers. Their diet consists mainly of fruits, figs and insects. The female seals herself inside a tree hole to lay her eggs. During this time, the male and helpers provide food for the female and the young.
The species occurs in lowland primary forest, occasionally tall secondary forest, usually below 650 m asl but sometimes up to 1,100 m asl. Family groups sometimes in more open habitats (del Hoyo et al. 2001). Diet consists mainly of fruit (85%), also some small animals, mainly invertebrates. They often forage below the canopy. In Gorontalo, Sulawesi, the species has been observed foraging in primary and abandoned selectively logged forest, including those in fairly close proximity to human settlements (D. Mulyawati in litt. 2010). It requires large forest trees for breeding (del Hoyo et al. 2001, F. Lambert in litt. 2011), nesting in natural cavities or old woodpecker holes. Nests in some sites used by Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix.
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BirdLife International. 2017. Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22682504A117181682. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22682504A117181682.en. Downloaded on 08 June 2021.
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