Western pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea
Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
Eastern pygmy marmoset Cebuella niveiventris
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The pygmy marmoset is world’s smallest true monkey, with a head-body length ranging from 117 to 152 mm and a tail of 172 to 229 mm. The average adult body weight is just over 100 grams, with the only sexual dimorphism of females being a little heavier. Their fur colour is a mixture of brownish-gold, grey, and black on their backs and head and yellow, orange, and tawny on their underparts. Pygmy marmosets use special types of communication to give alerts and warning their family members. These include chemical, vocal, and visual types of communication. This is believed to serve to promote group cohesion and avoidance of other family groups.
Pygmy Marmosets are largely restricted to river-edge forest (Soini 1988) and their abundance in a given locality is dependent on the availability of suitable habitat. Some authors have indicated that they live in secondary forest (Canizo and Calouro 2011, Canizo 2012, Moynihan 1976, Hernández-Camacho and Cooper 1976).
There are actually two species described of the pygmy marmoset:
There are few morphological differences between these species, as they may only differ slightly in color, and they are only separated by geographical barriers, including large rivers in South America.
Pygmy Marmosets are gum-feeding specialists, with behavioural and dental adaptations to gnaw holes in the bark of certain species of trees and vines to stimulate gum production (Soini 1988, Yepez et al. 2005).
Group sizes range from 2-9, with 1-2 adult males and 1-2 adult females. A single breeding female in the group produces twins twice a year, and the adult males and other group members help her to carry them (Soini 1988). Home ranges are typically small from 0.1 to 1.5 ha, centred on one or two trees which supply the gum they need. The entire group will move to a new home range when the gum sources become inadequate (de la Torre 2009, Soini 1988).
For both the Eastern and Western Pygmy Marmoset, habitat loss is taking place in several areas of their range. The forests where The Pygmy Marmosets live are affected by human activities (e.g., mining – Asner et al. 2013; deforestation – Killeen et al. 2007).
The assessment is based on the precautionary principle, considering that there is evidence to support the Vulnerable status of the subspecies Cebuella niveiventris. There is an ongoing population size reduction suspected to be >30% over a three-generation period (18 years) due to a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from deforestation, mining, oil palm cultivation, settlements and other anthropogenic threats, and from hunting. Few, short-term, population studies have been carried out with this subspecies. However, it is suspected to be undergoing some localized declines in parts of its range, due mainly to habitat loss.
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de la Torre, S., Calouro, A.M., Wallace, R.B., Mollinedo, J.M., Messias, M.R. & Valença-Montenegro, M.M. 2021. Cebuella niveiventris (amended version of 2020 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T136865A191707236. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T136865A191707236.en. Downloaded on 06 June 2021.
de la Torre, S., Shanee, S., Palacios, E., Calouro, A.M., Messias, M.R. & Valença-Montenegro, M.M. 2021. Cebuella pygmaea (amended version of 2020 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T136926A191707442. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T136926A191707442.en. Downloaded on 06 June 2021.
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